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Osteoporosis is progressive bone loss which is associated with increased risk of fractures.

The term osteoporosis means “porous bone.” It can be diagnosed by measuring the bone mineral density (BMD). This is a disease that causes bones to become fragile and to break and could be detected when bone is broken.
Prevention

As the age increases, so does the loss of bones, however, not every person’s bone starts thinning to be eventually diagnosed as osteoporosis. Although gender and genetics play important roles, researches have defined the key, measures to prevent life long disease – like calcium rich diet in your every day life, and doing weight-lifting (resistance) and weight bearing exercises regularly – which helps to prevent osteoporosis.

Children and teenagers can develop strong bones with weight-bearing exercises done regularly; adults can maintain bone mass; it slows the rate of bone loss after the menopause which can be viewed as an overall treatment plan; and adults who are above 65 years can reduce the rate of bone loss by physical activities and avoid bone-injuries by improving balance and muscle strength. The appropriate exercise type and safety can be determined by the strength of your bones.

Ensure the intake of calcium and vitamin D adequately as it plays a vital role in reducing the risk of osteoporosis. If you are diagnosed with osteoporosis already, get adequate vitamin D and calcium, along with other measures, which will help avoiding your bones to grow weaker. In some cases you can be able to replace the bone that you have lost. Over a period of time, the amount of calcium required stay healthy changes. During childhood and adolescence, the skeleton grows rapidly and hence a greater need for calcium arises. The body also demands more calcium during pregnancy and breast-feeding. The consumption of calcium increases among older men and Postmenopausal women. As you grow old, the body is less efficient in calcium absorption and you are prone to take medicines that may affect the calcium absorption.

An increase in the bone loss also is due to smoking which reduces the calcium absorption in the intestine and decreases the count of estrogen a woman’s body makes. The effects on bone of secondhand smoke are yet to be known. So, do not smoke.
Risk of osteoporosis in woman after and during menopause, can be reduced by Hormone therapy. But your doctor would be the best person for you to advise you of the risk and side effects. Discuss with your doctor about the best options and arrive at a decision. Osteoporosis which is caused by low testosterone levels in men can be treated only by Testosterone replacement therapy. It will not increase the bone mass when you undergo the therapy while having normal testosterone levels.
Vitamin K has been shown to be effective in reduction of bone loss. It is an important element for bone structure. Intake of 90 micrograms (mcg) of Vitamin K daily is recommended. It is found in dark green leafy vegetables (spinach, broccoli, greens, Brussels sprouts and collard. The availability of Vitamin K supplements is not restricted. With blood coagulation of vitamin K, a consultation with the doctor is required before increasing the intake.

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