Osteoporosis can increase without any symptoms.
The only reliable way to determine the presence of osteoporosis is to have a bone density scan, which is known as a bone mineral density (BMD) test, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan, or just a bone scan. It is a painless and non-invasive bone scan, depending on the technology, which measures bone density in the spine, hip wrist, hand or heel.
Screening is a must particulary for women with early menopause, patients of weight loss amenorrhoea, steroid or GnRH therapy, low body index, TAHBSO and prior fractures with less impact. Patients who have chronic diseases relating to liver, depression, PMS, fatigue and infected with HIV are likely to have osteopaenia or osteoporosis. Lifescan, a company which specializes in health screening, offers osteoporosis screening bone scans at different locations across UK.The intervention of medicine has shown to be effective in men above 65yrs of age. A large number of BMD screening studies may be required to avoid a fracture. An individualized approach may be recommended until we find a cost effective, regular screening in healthy men or the efficiency of specific interventions in drugs.
Initial screening of osteopenia and osteoporosis in urban women hailing from Jammu who use calcaneal QUS
Background of Osteoporosis is that it is a main health problem among people, associated with socio-economic burden and substantial morbidity. Detecting it in an early stage helps reducing the overall socio-economic burden and fracture levels in patients. A study had been carried out to screen the status of the bone (osteoporosis and osteopenia) above the age of 25yrs in urban women in this region. A study based on hospital was carried out in 158 women, which included the calculation of T-scores using calcaneal QUS (a diagnostic tool). It suggested that after 45 years a considerable female population had osteoporosis and oesteopenia. The occurrence of osteoporosis was 20.25% and osteopenia was 36.79% and a maximum number of both osteopenic and osteoporosis women recorded in the age group of (55-64 years). At about 65 years, there was an almost 100% incidence of either osteoporosis and oesteopenia, which indicates that it increases with age and in postmenopausal period, henceforth suggesting lack of estrogenic activity could have been responsible for the increasing fashion. It also indicates that caste, religion and diet had influence on the outcome of
In the present study, religion, caste and diet had an influence on the outcome of osteoporosis and oesteopenic scores, but not established by conducting randomized and larger trials of the clinics in the future. It can be concluded that a considerable population of women was screened for osteoporosis and osteoporosis and oesteopenia making use of calcaneal QUS method and WHO T score criteria which otherwise may remain not diagnosed and counter the menace and complications of osteoporosis.
Understood that the therapy for osteoporosis may only produce a low percentage increase in BMD, very standardized tests are required. The therapy uses BMD by DXA to assess response.
Successive measurements should be carried out at the same unit and real change should not be mixed up with random fluctuation.